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Information organization in descriptions and narratives: Spatial anchoring in L2 Chinese

描述与叙述的信息组织:汉语二语中的空间定位

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Résumé

Many studies have shown that, confronted with complex verbal tasks, native speakers of different languages differ in their preferred patterns of information organization which determine what kind of information is selected for expression and how it is mapped into form (Carroll et al., 2000; Carroll & Lambert, 2003; Carroll & Stutterheim, 2002). This study examines the ways in which French-speaking learners of L2 Chinese introduce new referents in two different types of discourse: spatial descriptions and narratives. The procedure used consists of the analysis of an oral corpus collected from four groups of informants: two groups of native speakers of Chinese and French, and two groups of learners of L2 Chinese at two proficiency levels (low and intermediate). The data collected consists of the description of a poster and of the re-telling of a comic strip. The results of the description task show that linguistic devices used in Chinese and French to encode the spatial anchoring of the new referent have an impact on the presence and placement of the locative phrase in the utterance. These properties in turn influence the way in which the informational content develops across the utterances in the discourse. Even if there is a clear development of proficiency between the two L2 groups, intermediate learners still often leave the spatial anchoring of the new referent implicit (zero anaphora), and therefore are not yet able to organize information on the discourse level like native Chinese speakers. The results of the narrative task show that French speakers introduce new referents in narratives relying on the temporal anchoring, whereas Chinese speakers also consistently add a spatial anchoring in sentence initial position to ensure discourse coherence. Even at intermediate level, learners are not able to identify this pattern of information organization in their L2. These difficulties in the information organization can be explained by L1 transfer but are also influenced by the grammatical means used in Chinese to introduce new referents in discourse, namely presentative construction and localizers in locative phrases. Carroll, M., & Lambert, M. (2003). Information structure in narratives and the role of grammaticised knowledge. A study of adult French and German learners of English. In C. Dimroth & M. Starren (Eds.), Information structure and the dynamics of language acquisition (pp. 267–287). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Carroll, M., Murcia-serra, J., Watorek, M., & Bendiscioli, A. (2000). The Relevance of Information Organization to Second Language. The Descriptive Discourse of Advances Adult Learners of German. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 441–466. Carroll , M., & Stutterheim, C. von. (2002). Typology and information organization: perspective taking and language-specific effects in the construal of events. In A.Ramat (Ed.), Typology and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 365–402). Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton.
许多研究表明,在完成复杂的语言任务的过程当中,不同母语者倾向于选用不同信息组织模式,而这些模式会决定具体语言信息的选择和语言编码(Carroll et al., 2000; Carroll & Lambert, 2003; Carroll & Stutterheim, 2002)。本研究以口语语料为基础,对母语为法语的学习者如何在静态空间描述及故事叙述这两种语篇中引进新实体进行调查分析。被试者分为四组:分别是汉语母语者、法语母语者以及两组法语为母语的汉语学习者(初级组和中级组)。语料收集使用的测试材料分别为一张街景图片与一幅漫画。静态空间描述的结果表明,法语和汉语母语者在引进新实体的句子中,空间短语的类型与语法功能均有所不同,而这影响到空间短语的句法位置和出现频率。此差异在语篇层面上造成主位推进模式的不同。即使两组学习者之间的语言水平有明显差别,在引进新实体的句子中,中级组仍使用较多的零形回指,因此他们在语篇中的信息组织与汉语母语者截然不同。故事叙述的结果表明,法语母语者在叙述中依靠时间上的定位引入新的实体,而汉语母语者常在句首加上空间定位,以保证语篇的连贯性。即使到了中级水平,学习者仍尚未掌握L2的信息组织模式。这些信息组织上的困难来自L1跨语言的迁移,但也受到汉语在语篇中引入新实体的语法手段的影响,即存现句和空间短语中的方位词的使用。 Carroll, M., & Lambert, M. (2003). Information structure in narratives and the role of grammaticised knowledge. A study of adult French and German learners of English. In C. Dimroth & M. Starren (Eds.), Information structure and the dynamics of language acquisition (pp. 267–287). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Carroll, M., Murcia-serra, J., Watorek, M., & Bendiscioli, A. (2000). The Relevance of Information Organization to Second Language. The Descriptive Discourse of Advances Adult Learners of German. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 441–466. Carroll , M., & Stutterheim, C. von. (2002). Typology and information organization: perspective taking and language-specific effects in the construal of events. In A.Ramat (Ed.), Typology and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 365–402). Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton.
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hal-03318347 , version 1 (09-08-2021)

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  • HAL Id : hal-03318347 , version 1

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Arnaud Arslangul. Information organization in descriptions and narratives: Spatial anchoring in L2 Chinese. 6th International Conference on Chinese as a Second Language Research, Jul 2021, Washington, DC, United States. ⟨hal-03318347⟩
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