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Chapitre D'ouvrage Année : 2008

The pattern [Verb + Directional + Locative Phrase] in Northern Chinese

Les directionnels suivis de groupes nominaux locatifs dans les dialectes du nord de la Chine

北方话的“动词+趋向补语+处所名词”格式

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Résumé

This paper discusses the constraints weighing on the semantic role of postverbal locative phrases in three northern Chinese dialects when encoding a change of location. In Standard Mandarin, directional complements may introduce various locative phrases, like for instance in pǎo-shàng lóu ‘run up the stairs’ or (bǎ chē) kāi-guò qiáo ‘drive (the car) across the bridge, and these postverbal locative phrases take accordingly various semantic roles such as the source, the route, or the goal of the motion. In many non-standard Mandarin dialects, however, canonical directional complements are excluded from these constructions, where the locative phrase is typically introduced by a goal marker (whose function is similar to that of Standard Mandarin dao in kāidao chēzhàn ‘drive to the station’). The dialects chosen here to illustrate such types are the Jìzhōu dialect of Héběi, and the Yǒngshòu dialect of Shǎnxī, two dialects belonging to different subgroups of Mandarin dialect, in which only goal phrases are allowed after the verb when expressing a change of location. We show here that a third type can be found in Shānxī in the Jìn dialect of Lánxiàn, where directional complement are allowed to introduce locative phrases after the verbs (like in Standard Mandarin), but where these locative phrases are nevertheless restricted to those expressing the goal of the motion, like in many non-standard northern Mandarin dialects. As a consequence, the respective role played by directional complements and by locatives in expressing the path of motion differs in these dialects.
本文讨论趋向补语引进处所名词的格式,如共同语的“跑上楼”,“(把车)开过桥”一类句法格式。我们经过两种官话方言(属于冀鲁官话的冀州话以及属于中原官话关中方言的永寿方言)和属于晋方言的山西岚县话中的对比证明这些方言不仅与共同语有所不同,而且彼此之间也显示出有趣的差异。在冀州方言和永寿方言的述趋式中,典型的趋向补语(如“上、下、进、出、过”)不能引进处所名词,在动词后引进处所名词的成分限于“到”类终点标记(其形式会按地区而异),处所名词的语义角色也限于位移终点。然而,在属于晋方言的岚县话里,“回(=进)、下、上、过”等趋向补语却可以引进处所名词,但是处所名词的语义角色还是限于表示终点,与共同语还是有别,如没有“跳下炕”一类引进位移起源点的趋向补语。论文还涉及趋向补语和方位词在标注位移路径意义时的分工:冀州、永寿方言在表示位置变化的句式中仅仅依靠附在处所词上的方位词来标注“上~下”、“进~出”等位置信息,而岚县话和共同语既可以依靠方位词,也可以依靠趋向补语。
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Dates et versions

hal-01385788 , version 1 (22-10-2016)

Identifiants

  • HAL Id : hal-01385788 , version 1

Citer

Christine Lamarre. 北方话的“动词+趋向补语+处所名词”格式 . QIAO Quansheng 乔全生. Dì sān jiè Jìn fāngyán guójì xuéshù yántǎohuì lùnwénjí 《晋方言研究 ——第三届晋方言国际学术研讨会论文集》[Studies on Jin Dialects: Selected Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Jin Dialects], 希望出版社 Xīwàng Chūbǎnshè, pp.215-222, 2008, 978-7-5379-4241-6. ⟨hal-01385788⟩
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