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Article Dans Une Revue 现代中国语研究 [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese] Année : 2005

The linguistic encoding of habitual in Chinese

汉语里标注惯常动作的形式

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Résumé

This paper discusses the way Chinese encodes HABITUAL (i.e. the way it marks “what constitutes a characteristic feature of an extended period of time”, see Comrie 1976). HABITUAL has long been described in relation with the grammatical categories of tense and aspect. However more recent crosslinguistic studies prove that habituality is often conveyed through markers linked with modality, which fits with Comrie’s remark that “habituality can also be modal, since it involves induction from limited observations about the actual world to a generalisation about possible worlds”. We argue that 1) Standard Mandarin uses modal auxiliary verbs such as yào ‘to want to, must, will’ and huì ‘to know how to, may, could’ to express habitual, and that their habitual meaning arises from their epistemic sense, triggered by frequency adverbials like ‘every time…’ and a non-future temporal frame. 2) This supports Givon and Palmer’s claims that there is nothing illogical for a language to use a form originally marking irrealis mood to mark present or even past habitual events, as “a habitual-marked assertion does not refer to any particular event that occurred at any specific time”. We also discuss another habitual marker: ài ‘to love to, to be in the habit of’.
本文初步分析汉语对惯常性行为(HABITUAL)的标柱方式。我们经过对出现在情态动词句法位置的“会”、“要”和“爱”等动词的考察,主张汉语用来源于表达非现实情态的动词来标柱惯常性行为。论文还提及一般语言学界有关现实和非现实范畴的争论,即表示现在或过去经常发生某个动作的句子怎么会与非现实情态重合这一问题。我们根据汉语的事例,指出这可以从惯常性动作句的功能得到解释。惯常句与表示动作反复出现的句子不同,并不是陈述该动作在具体的空间或时间内发生过,而是用来描写某人某物的特征或属性,具有类指的特点。
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Dates et versions

hal-01385759 , version 1 (22-10-2016)

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  • HAL Id : hal-01385759 , version 1

Citer

Christine Lamarre. 汉语里标注惯常动作的形式. 现代中国语研究 [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese], 2005, 7, pp.33-49. ⟨hal-01385759⟩
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