M. C. See and . Fuller, Remembering the Early Modern Voyage. English Narratives in the Age of European Expansion, p.pp, 2008.

R. Mcghee, The Last Imaginary Place: A Human History of the Arctic World, pp.153-72, 2004.

A. Simple-search-for-'john and . Davis, as a subject in the British Library integrated catalogue yields only two relevant results whereas a similar search for 'Martin Frobisher' yields about twenty records. On Frobisher, see also, Meta Incognita: A Discourse of Discovery. Martin Frobisher's Arctic expeditions, pp.1576-1578, 1999.

E. Dodge, Northwest by Sea, p.96, 1961.

D. B. Quoted and . Quinn, North America from Earliest Discovery to First Settlement

S. E. Quoted and . Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages A, pp.500-1600, 1971.

W. P. Cumming and R. A. , For a detailed summary of Davis's voyages, see for example

D. B. Skelton and . Quinn, The Discovery of North America, pp.213-52, 1971.

E. H. See and . Ash, A Note and a Caveat for the Merchant": Mercantile Advisors in Elizabethan England', The Sixteenth Century Journal, pp.1-31, 2002.

J. Janes, for the discoverie of the Northwest passage. Written by M. John Janes Marchant, sometimes servant to the worshipfull Master William Sanderson The Principall Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, J. Masefield: J. M. Dent, vol.5, pp.281-91, 1585.

I. Unlike, who had not devised many tools or techniques to alleviate their agricultural chores But Thomas Harriot praised their 'wit' and 'ingenuity': 'In respect of us they are a people poor, and for want of skill and judgement in the knowledge and use of our things, doe esteeme our trifles before things of greater value: Notwithstanding in their proper manner considering the want of such means as we have, they seem very ingenious; for although they have no such tooles, nor any such crafts, sciences and artes as we, those things they doe, they shewe excellencie of wit': T. Harriot, A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1588), p.25, 1972.

J. Davis, The second voyage attempted by M John Davis with others, for the discoverie of the Northwest passage', in R. Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations, pp.291-303

. Davis, The second voyage, p.293

. Davis, The second voyage, p.294

. Davis, The second voyage, p.294

S. D. Settle, The second voyage of Martin Frobisher to the West and Northwest Regions in the yeere 1577', quoted in P. C. Mancall, Hakluyt's Promise: An Elizabethan's Obsession for an English America, p.53, 2007.

. Davis, The second voyage, pp.294-299

. Davis, The second voyage, p.295

. Davis, The second voyage, p.295

. Davis, The second voyage, pp.295-301

. Davis, The second voyage, p.297

. Davis, The second voyage, p.298

. Davis, The second voyage, p.298

S. D. Settle, A True Report of the last voyage into the West and Northwest regions (1577), quoted in Mancall, Hakluyt's Promise, p.53

. Davis, The second voyage', p. 301. 40 'Secretly lurking in the wood' the natives attacked a group of five English sailors, two of whom they killed (Davis, 'The second voyage, p.303

S. M. Fortescue, S. Jacobson, and L. Kaplan, Comparative Eskimo Dictionary, With Aleut Cognates Alaska Native Language Center In modern usage, the term 'Eskimo' primarily refers to the linguistic family comprised of the Inuit dialect continuum and the Yupik languages, some parts of the Arctic, one also calls 'Eskimos' the people whose ancestral language belongs to the Eskimo linguistic family, namely the Inuit and the Yupiit, p.42, 2010.

. Markham and . Dr, Rink, the Director of Royal Greenland Trade at Copenhagen, and formerly Royal Inspector of South Greenland, has very kindly examined these Eskimo terms, and compared them with those now in use amongst the Greenlanders, with the following result, John Davis the Navigator, pp.1880-1901

L. See and . Dorais, The Language of the Inuit, p.108

. Markham, By contrast, Dorais's view seems too severe and rather unfair: 'Unfortunately for us, Davis and his scribe were much worse linguists than Christopher Hall. Many of their words are thus unrecognizable. Moreover, the explorer did not always understand what his informants were trying to tell him' (The Language of the Inuit, pp.21-108

S. Hall, arered "an eye", keiotot "a tooth", mutchatet "the head", chewat "an eare", comagaye "a legge, teckkere "the foremost finger", ketteckle "the middle finger", mekellacane "the fourth finger", yacketrone "the litle finger, p.50

. Dorais, The Language of the Inuit, pp.108-117

W. O. See, . Quine, . Word, and . Object, At the outset of the second chapter 28), which presents the 'gavagai' problem, Quine introduces the concept of radical translation in the following way: 'The recovery of a man's current language from his currently observed responses is the task of the linguist, who, unaided by an interpreter, is out to penetrate and translate a language hitherto unknown. All the objective data he has to go on are the forces that he sees impinging on the native's surfaces and the observable behavior, vocal and otherwise, of the native. Such data evince "meanings" only of the most objectively empirical or stimulus-linked variety. And yet the linguist apparently ends up with native "meanings" in some quite unrestricted sense; purported translations, anyway, of all possible native sentences. Translation between kindred languages, e.g., Frisian and English, is aided by resemblance of cognate word forms. Translation between unrelated languages, e.g., Hungarian and English, may be aided by traditional equations that have evolved in step with a shared culture What is relevant rather to our purposes is radical translation, i.e., translation of the language of a hitherto untouched people, p.57, 1960.

M. Lok1577 and E. Otho, The Three Voyages of Martin Frobisher, pp.2-161