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Article Dans Une Revue 现代中国语研究 [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese] Année : 2007

The encoding of HABITUAL in Chinese

汉语里标注惯常动作的形式

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Résumé

This paper discusses the way Chinese encodes habitual, i.e. the way it marks “what constitutes a characteristic feature of an extended period of time” (Comrie 1976). Habitual has long been described in relation with the grammatical categories of tense and aspect. However, more recent crosslinguistic studies prove that habituality is often conveyed by markers linked with modality, which fits with Comrie’s remark that “habituality can also be modal, since it involves induction from limited observations about the actual world to a generalization about possible worlds”. We argue that Standard Mandarin uses modal auxiliary verbs such as yào ‘to want to, must, will’ and huì ‘to know how to, may, could’ to express habitual, and that their habitual meaning is closely related to their other epistemic senses, triggered by frequency adverbials like ‘every time’ and a non-future temporal frame. This supports claims by Givon (1994) and Palmer (2001) that there is nothing illogical for a language to use a form originally marking irrealis mood to mark present or even past habitual events, as “a habitual-marked assertion does not refer to any particular event that occurred at any specific time”. We also discuss another habitual marker : ài ‘to love to, to be in the habit of’.
本文讨论汉语里能进入能愿动词句法位置的三个形式“会”、“要”和“爱”,初步地分析惯常性行为(HABITUAL)的标柱方式。我们指出汉语用来源于表达非现实情态的形式来标柱惯常性行为。语言学界曾经发生过一场争论∶表示现在或过去经常发生某个动作的句子,在意义上怎么会与非现实情态相吻合?我们认为这可以从表示惯常性动作的句子功能上得到解释。这些句子与表示动作反复出现的句子不同,并不是陈述该动作在具体的空间或时间内发生过,而用来描写某人某物的特征。
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Dates et versions

hal-01382313 , version 1 (16-10-2016)

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  • HAL Id : hal-01382313 , version 1

Citer

Christine Lamarre. 汉语里标注惯常动作的形式. 现代中国语研究 [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese], 2007, 7, pp.33-49. ⟨hal-01382313⟩
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