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Article Dans Une Revue 现代中国语研究 [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese] Année : 2003

The encoding of motion events in Chinese: The issue of directional verb compounds

汉语空间位移事件的语言表达 —— 兼论述趋式的几个问题

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Résumé

This paper is a first attempt to apply Talmy’s views on the typology of motion events (see for instance Talmy 2000) to Chinese directional verb compounds. It first introduces Talmy’s components of a motion event such as Path and Satellites, and illustrates some of the relations observed in Chinese Directional verb compounds between the co-event and the motion event. The paper then discusses the correlation between causation and agentivity on one hand, and the prevalent pattern used to encode motion events in Chinese. As Chinese widely uses path verbs to encode autonomous (self-agentive) motion events controlled by the Figure, it cannot be considered as a canonical Satellite-framed language. However, causative (agentive) motion events typically combine a Manner Verb and a Path Satellite, the way Satellite-framed languages do, we therefore argue that it is more appropriate to consider that Chinese exhibits what Talmy calls a “split system”, and that the patterns used to encode motion events depend on features such as agentivity and causation. The paper also compares Chinese with French and Japanese concerning the manner component, to provide miscellaneous but converging evidence that Chinese exhibits several features of a typical Satellite-framed language. Other issues discussed here include the use of “dummy” manner verbs, the tendency to encode the manner of motion even when it does not provide any relevant information (ex. “walk”), the encoding of motion events in non-standard varieties of Chinese, and mention the hypothesis of a shift form a verb-framed to a Satellite-framed language.
本文企图利用 Leonard Talmy 对复杂的位移事件所提出的一体化(event integration)理论,来讨论汉语里表达位移事件的专用格式∶述趋式。我们先介绍Talmy 的类型学的基本构想及其所依据的几项参照项,考察现代汉语表达位移事件的典型模式。然后论文讨论汉语的语言类型问题,主张汉语属于一个混合的类型,表达位移事件有时用趋向动词(“你进来!”),即动词框架语言的表达模式,有时用移动方式动词和趋向补语的组合(“他悄悄地走进来”),即卫星框架语言的典型表达模式。我们重视表达模式和位移事件的施事性特点(自移、致移等)的相关性,指出汉语表示致使位移时必须用组合模式,但是表示自移时可以选择使用路径动词或者组合模式。论文有时参考一些方言材料,也提及汉语的历史演变以及口语和书面语层次的差异。论文最后分析汉语和法语、日语等语言在位移事件的表达上的异同,试图解释为什么汉语(共同语、方言)的述趋式里会出现一些“冗余”的成分。
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Dates et versions

hal-01382257 , version 1 (16-10-2016)

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  • HAL Id : hal-01382257 , version 1

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Christine Lamarre. 汉语空间位移事件的语言表达 —— 兼论述趋式的几个问题. 现代中国语研究 [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese], 2003, 5, pp.1-18. ⟨hal-01382257⟩
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